1. Seminars and conferences (Open):
Venue: Sasakawa Auditorium, icddr,b.
9 April: 03:30 pm-04:30 pm.
Title: Statistical and epidemiological modeling to analyze imperfect data sets for partitioning, clustering and attribution of pathogens in time and space”. Guest Speakers: Dr med. vet. Dorte Dopfer, Assistant Professor, Food Animal Production Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, USA & Dr Ermias Amene, Comparative Biomedical Science Program, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
31 March-1 April: The Research Group of Leadership, Governance and Accountability, in collaboration with the UNFPA, is organizing a two-day workshop on 'Reducing Maternal and Neonatal Mortality of Population Living at the Fringe: what is working for Bangladesh?' from 31 March to 1 April, 2012 at Jamuna Resort, Tangail, Bangladesh. This workshop will be attended by 130 participants with representation from the MOHFW and its two directorates, program managers from 11 MNHI districts under the Joint-GOB-UN-MNHI program, and representatives from relevant NGOs and development partners. The workshop will mainly focus on the sharing experiences about the successful programmatic interventions on maternal and neonatal mortality reduction in hard-to-reach areas implemented by different organizations/ agencies, with a view to document the lessons learned in order to refine the strategies for the MNHI program.
04 April, 2012 (5.00 pm to 6.00 pm): Training on “Raising awareness on gender and health seeking behaviour of male member of the family of child patients and husbands of female patients to bring the girl child and wives quickly to hospital and stay till the recovery” organized by Gender & Diversity Unit in collaboration with Nutrition Rehabilitation Unit at Reception Premises. The workshop will be facilitated by Farzana Shahnaz Majid, Gender & Diversity Specialist, icddr,b.
3. Absence from the Centre (on mission/leave):
27 March-5 April: Dr. Alejandro Cravioto, Executive Director, will be involved with fundraising activities in London, UK, and visit the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridge, UK. He will then travel to Bethesda, Maryland to attend a meeting organized by the National Institute of Mental Health of the U.S. National Institutes of Health on Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health. In his absence, Dr Abbas Bhuiya, Deputy Executive Director will be Acting Executive Director.
01-07 April 2012: Dr. Laura Reichenbach will be on leave. During her absence, Dr. Md. Abdul Quaiyum will be Acting Director of Centre for Reproductive Health (CRH).
4. New staff and Visitors to icddr,b:
28 March – 06 April: Dr. Koyejo Oyerinde, Assistant Clinical Professor, Averting Maternal Death & Disability Program (AMDD), Heilbrunn Department of Population & Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, USA, will visit to work with Dr. Mahbub Elahi Chowdhury and his team on the collaborative study “Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) needs assessment in selected districts in Bangladesh”.
1 April-30 September: Kassandra Leigh Harding from the University of California Davis will visit to work with Dr. Malay Kanti Mridha, CRH on a collaborative study.
8-14 April: Dr. Justin Lessler and Mr. Andrew Azman, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA will visit the Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation Research Group, icddr,b Centre For Communicable Diseases, to deliver training and meet with potential collaborators at icddr,b and IEDCR.
5. RRC & ERC meetings (PIs are requested to submit their protocols and responses on time):
05 April 2012 (Thursday) RRC meeting at 2:00 p.m.
25 April 2012 (Wednesday) ERC meeting at 3:00 pm.
The 2012 Calendar and Year Planners are still on sale at Tk. 300.00, Tk. 100.00 each. Should you wish to purchase these for official/personal use, kindly contact the Executive Director’s Office with the relevant budget code or cash.
“Images of Bangladesh” – A book of Photographs on sale @ Tk. 3000.00 each (Executive Director’s Office).
All sale proceeds to the Hospital Endowment Fund.
J Health Popul Nutr 2012 Mar;30(1):1-11
Although child and maternal malnutrition has been reduced in Bangladesh, the prevalence of underweight (weight-for-age z-score <-2) among children aged less than five years is still high (41%). Nearly one-third of women are undernourished with body mass index of <18.5 kg/m2. The prevalence of anaemia among young infants, adolescent girls, and pregnant women is still at unacceptable levels. Despite the successes in specific programmes, such as the Expanded Programme on Immunization and vitamin A supplementation, programmes for nutrition interventions are yet to be implemented at scale for reaching the entire population. Given the low annual rate of reduction in child undernutrition of 1.27 percentage points per year, it is unlikely that Bangladesh would be able to achieve the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goal to address undernutrition. This warrants that the policy-makers and programme managers think urgently about the ways to accelerate the progress. The Government, development partners, non-government organizations, and the academia have to work in concert to improve the coverage of basic and effective nutrition interventions, including exclusive breastfeeding, appropriate complementary feeding, supplementation of micronutrients to children, adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women, management of severe acute malnutrition and deworming, and hygiene interventions, coupled with those that address more structural causes and indirectly improve nutrition. The entire health system needs to be revitalized to overcome the constraints that exist at the levels of policy, governance, and service-delivery, and also for the creation of demand for the services at the household level. In addition, management of nutrition in the aftermath of natural disasters and stabilization of prices of foods should also be prioritized.
Global Heart 2012 Mar;7(1):61-6
Risk-attributable burden of chronic diseases and cost of prevention in Bangladesh
To address the increasing burden from noncommunicable diseases (NCD) in Bangladesh, new epidemiologic and economic information for risk factors are needed. This work quantified the attributable risk from specific NCD risk factors and undertook a costing exercise for prevention of NCD risk factors. We used available data for Bangladesh and implemented an iterative questionnaire process with local experts to calculate risk factor population attributable fractions and establish resource requirements for NCD prevention. The burden analysis showed that myocardial infarction and stroke occurrence can be greatly reduced by risk factor control. From the costing, we found that $3.95 USD per capita is needed for a prevention program, which is 26% of the total expenditure on health. These estimates should facilitate advocacy for setting expenditure targets and identifying financing mechanisms to address NCD. The information supports the scaling-up of NCD prevention strategies in Bangladesh and serves as a model for work in developing country settings.
Clin Microbiol Infect 2012 Mar 3. [Epub ahead of print]
Evidence for a link between locus R-R sequence type and outcome of infection with Entamoeba histolytica
Ali IKM, Haque R, Alam F, Kabir M, Siddique A, Petri WA, Jr.
The results of Entamoeba histolytica infections range from asymptomatic colonization to variable disease outcomes. However, markers that may predict infection outcomes are not known. Here, we investigated sequence types of a non-coding tRNA-linked locus R-R to identify surrogate markers that may show association with infection outcomes. Among 112 clinical samples-21 asymptomatic, 20 diarrhoea/dysentery and 71 liver abscesses-we identified 11 sequence types. Sequence type 5RR was mostly associated with asymptomatic samples, and sequence type 10RR was predominantly associated with the symptomatic (diarrhoea/dysentery and liver abscess) samples. This is the first report that identifies markers that may predict disease outcomes in E. histolytica infection.
J Infect Dis 2012 Mar 22. [Epub ahead of print]
Evaluation of tuberculosis diagnostics in children: 1. proposed clinical case definitions for classification of intrathoracic tuberculosis disease. Consensus from an expert panel
Graham SM, Ahmed T, Amanullah F, Browning R, Cardenas V, Casenghi M, Cuevas LE, Gale M, Gie RP, Grzemska M, Handelsman E, Hatherill M, Hesseling AC, Jean-Philippe P, Kampmann B, Kabra SK, Lienhardt C, Lighter-Fisher J, Madhi S, Makhene M, Marais BJ, McNeeley DF, Menzies H, Mitchell C, Modi S, Mofenson L, Musoke P, Nachman S, Powell C, Rigaud M, Rouzier V, Starke JR, Swaminathan S, Wingfield C
There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis.
Clin Vaccine Immunol 2012 Mar 21 [Epub ahead of print]
Memory B cell and other immune responses in children receiving two doses of a killed oral cholera vaccine compared to responses following natural cholera infection in Bangladesh
Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower protective efficacy and shorter duration of protection against cholera than that afforded by wild type infection, and this difference is most pronounced in young children. Despite this, there are limited data comparing immune responses in children following wild type disease versus vaccination, especially of memory responses associated with long term immunity. Here, we report a comparison of immune responses in young children (2–5 years of age; n=20) and older children (6–17 years of age; n=20) given two doses of a killed oral cholera vaccine containing recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) 14 days apart, and compare these responses to those induced in similarly aged children recovering from infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in Bangladesh. We found that the two vaccine groups had comparable vibriocidal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) specific plasma antibody responses. Vaccinees developed lower levels of IgG memory B cell (MBC) response against CtxB, but no significant MBC responses against LPS. In contrast, children recovering from natural cholera infection developed prominent LPS IgG and IgA MBC responses, as well as CtxB IgG MBC responses. Plasma LPS IgG, IgA and IgM responses, as well as vibriocidal responses, were also significantly higher in children following disease versus vaccination. Our findings suggest that acute and memory immune responses following oral cholera vaccination in children are significantly lower than those observed following wild type disease, especially responses targeting LPS. These findings may explain, in part, the lower efficacy of oral cholera vaccination in children.
J Med Microbiol 2012 Mar 22 [Epub ahead of print] (no abstract available)
Extended-spectrum-Beta-lactamases producing Salmonella enterica serovar typhi strain in Dhaka, Bangladesh
[Book & book chapter]
Wahed T, Rasheed S, Bhuiya A, editors. Doctoring the village doctors: giving attention where it is due. Dhaka: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 2012. (icddr,b monograph no. 10)
Koehlmoos TP, Islam Z, Anwar S, Hossain SAS, Gazi R, Streatfield PK, Bhuiya AU. Health transcends poverty: the Bangladesh experience. In: Balabanova D, McKee M, Mills A, editors. ‘Good health at low cost’ 25 years on: what makes a successful health systems? London: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 2011:47-81 (chapter 3)